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MATERIAL TESTING
Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate

AASHTO T 85-13 / ASTM C 127-12

Standard Method of Tests

Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate

Standard AASHTO T 85-13 / ASTM C 127-12

Specific gravity and absorption of coarse aggregate based on 15–19 h of soaking in water is determined based on AASHTO T 85-13 test method. The specific gravity may be expressed as bulk specific gravity, bulk specific gravity (saturated surface-dry (SSD)), or apparent specific gravity.

Test Summary: The sample of aggregate is sieved through a 4.75 mm sieve by dry sieving and washing to remove dust and other coatings from the surface. The material finer than 4.75 mm sieve is rejected (Specific Gravity test on material finer than 4.75 mm is conducted based on AASHTO T 84). The washed sample of aggregate is dried to constant mass at a temperature of 110 ± 5°C (230 ± 9°F). Once cooled, the sample is immersed in water to essentially fill the pores (by 15–19 h of soaking in water). It is then removed from the water, surface dried by a large absorbant cloth to reach Saturated Surface Dry (SSD) condition and weighed in air. Subsequently the sample is weighed while submerged in water maintained at a temperature of 23 ± 1.7°C (73.4 ± 9°F). The sample is dried again by oven drying and weighed. Using the formulas detailed below and using the mass and weight measurements made as described above, specific gravity and absorption calculations are made.

Absorption

The increase in the mass of aggregate due to water in the pores of the material, but not including water adhering to the outside surface of the particles, expressed as a percentage of the dry mass. The aggregate is considered “dry” when it has been maintained at a temperature of 110 ± 5°C for sufficient time to remove all uncombined water by reaching a constant mass.

Specific Gravity

The ratio of the mass (or weight in air) of a unit volume of a material to the mass of the same volume of gas-free distilled water at stated temperatures. Values are dimensionless.

Apparent Specific Gravity

The ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of the impermeable portion of aggregate at a stated temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature.

Bulk Specific Gravity

The ratio of the weight in air of a unit volume of aggregate (including the permeable and impermeable voids in the particles, but not including the voids between particles) at a stated temperature to the weight in air of an equal volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature.

Bulk Specific Gravity (SSD)

The ratio of the mass in air of a unit volume of aggregate, including the mass of water within the voids filled to the extent achieved by submerging in water for 15–19 h (but not including the voids between particles) at a stated temperature, compared to the weight in air of an equal volume of gas-free distilled water at a stated temperature.


Calculation:

  1. Bulk Specific Gravity, 23°C (73.4°F), is calculated based on the following equation.

    Bulk Sp . Gravity =  A ( B C )

  2. Bulk Specific Gravity 23°C (73.4°F) in terms of saturated surface-dry (SSD) condition is calculated based on the following formula.

    Bulk Sp . Gravity(SSD) =  B ( B C )

  3. Apparent Specific Gravity 23°C (73.4°F) is calculated based on the following formula.

    App . Sp . Gravity =  A ( A C )

  4. Percentage of Absorption is calculated based on the following formula.

    Absorption (%) =  ( B A ) A where:
    A = mass of oven-dry test sample in air, g;
    B = mass of saturated surface-dry test sample in air, g;
    C = mass of saturated test sample in water, g.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND ABSORPTION




Specific Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate: Output

Bulk Specific Gravity @ 23°C:

Bulk Specific Gravity (Saturated Surface-Dry) @ 23°C:

Apparent Specific Gravity @ 23°C:

Percentage Absorption:


Average Specific Gravity and Absorption

Specific Gravity Absorption Mass Percentage


Average Specific Gravity and Absorption

Average Specific Gravity:

Average Absorption:

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