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ASPHALT MIX DESIGN
Mixture Volumetric Properties

MS 2: Asphalt Mix Design Methods

Asphalt Mix Design

Mixture Volumetric Properties

Reference Asphalt Institute MS 2

Mixture Volumetric Properties generally considered during the Asphalt Mix Design process includes Percent Air Voids (Pa), Voids in Mineral Aggregates (VMA), Voids Filled with Asphalt (VFA), Percent Effective Binder (Pbe), Percent Absorbed Binder (Pba) etc.

Percent Air Voids (Pa) - The volume of air voids in a compacted mixture, expressed as a percentage of the total mix volume.

Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA) - The voids created by the aggregate structure of a compacted asphalt mixture, expressed as a percentage of the total mix volume. VMA represents the volume of air voids and effective (nonabsorbed) asphalt binder.

Voids Filled with Asphalt (VFA) - The percentage of the VMA filled with effective (nonabsorbed) asphalt binder.

Percent Binder Effective (Pbe) - The functional portion of the asphalt binder that coats the aggregate in the asphalt mixture but is not absorbed into the aggregate, expressed as a percentage of the total mix mass.

Percent Binder Absorbed (Pba) - The portion of the asphalt binder that is absorbed into the aggregate, expressed as a percentage of the total aggregate mass.

Bulk (Dry) Specific Gravity (Gsb) of Aggregates

The ratio of the oven-dry mass of a unit volume of aggregate (including both the impermeable and water-permeable void volumes) to the mass of the same volume of water.Determined as per ASTM C 127 and C 128 or AASHTO T 84 and T 85

Apparent Specific Gravity (Gsa) of Aggregates

The ratio of the oven-dry mass of a unit volume of aggregate (including only the impermeable void volumes) to the mass of the same volume of water. Determined as per ASTM C 127 and C 128 or AASHTO T 84 and T 85.

Effective Specific Gravity (Gse) of Aggregates

The ratio of the oven-dry mass of a unit volume of aggregate (including both the impermeable void volumes and the waterpermeable voids not filled with absorbed asphalt) to the mass of the same volume of water.


Binder Specific Gravity (Gb)

The ratio of the mass of a unit volume of binder to the mass of the same volume of water. Determined as per ASTM D70 or AASHTO T 228.


Theoretical Maximum Specific Gravity (Gmm)

The ratio of the oven-dry mass of a unit volume of asphalt mixture (including the volumes of the aggregate and binder only) to the mass of the same volumeof water. Determined as per ASTM D 2041 or AASHTO T 209.

Bulk Specific Gravity(Gmb)

The ratio of the oven-dry mass of a unit volume of asphalt mixture (including the volumes of aggregate, binder and air) to the mass of the same volume of water. Determined as per ASTM D 2726 or AASHTO T 166.


Calculation:

Percent Air Voids (Pa) in compacted mixture:

P a = 100 100 × G m b G m m

Percent Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA) in compacted mixture: V M A = 100 G m b P s G s b

Percent Voids Filled with Asphalt (VFA) in compacted mixture: V F A = 100 × V M A P a V M A

Percentage Binder Absorption (Pba): P b a = 100 × ( G s e G s b ) G s e × G s b × G b

Effective Binder Content(Pbe)of paving mixture: P b e = P b P b a 100 × P s where:
Pa = Air voids in compacted mixture, percentage of total volume
Pba = Absorbed binder, percentage by mass of aggregate
Pbe = Effective binder, percentage by mass of aggregate
Gmm = Max. specific gravity of paving mixture
Gmb = Bulk specific gravity of paving mixture
Gb = Specific gravity of binder
Gse = Effective Specific Gravity of aggregate
Gsb = Bulk (Dry) Specific Gravity of aggregate
Ps = Percentage of aggregate by total mix weight
Pb = Percentage of binder by total mix weight

ASPHALT MIXTURE VOLUMETRIC PARAMETERS




Volumetric Properties of Compacted Asphalt Mixture: Output

Percent Air Voids in the Compacted Mixture (Pa):

Voids in the Mineral Aggregate (VMA):

Voids Filled with Asphalt (VFA):

Percent Binder Absorption (Pba):

Effective Binder Content (Pbe):

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